Which is better, ternary lithium ion battery or lithium iron phosphate battery?
Power lithium batteries are divided into chemical batteries, physical batteries and biological batteries. Electric vehicles use chemical batteries, which are the source of vehicle driving energy. Structurally, they can be divided into storage batteries and fuel power batteries. Storage batteries generally refer to rechargeable batteries. Lithium ion batteries have high energy density and long cycle life, Batteries shoulder the important task of electric vehicle mileage. After years of development, ternary lithium (lithium-ion Battery) and lithium iron phosphate (Lifepo4 Battery)are the two mainstream technical directions, which have been widely promoted and used. In contrast, ternary lithium-ion batteries are the most frequently used of the two types. What is the difference between these two batteries?
Lithium iron phosphate ion battery refers to a lithium ion battery using lithium iron phosphate as cathode material. This type of battery is characterized by no precious metal elements (such as cobalt). In practical use, lithium iron phosphate battery has the advantages of high temperature resistance, strong safety and stability, low price and better cycle performance. The price of raw materials is low, and phosphorus and iron are abundant in the earth.
Ternary lithium-ion battery refers to a lithium-ion battery using nickel cobalt lithium manganate as positive material and graphite as negative material. Generally, lithium-ion batteries using nickel cobalt lithium manganate or nickel cobalt lithium aluminate ternary cathode materials take nickel salt, cobalt salt and manganese salt as three different component proportions for different adjustments, so they are called "ternary", which contains many different proportion types of batteries. The voltage platform of ternary material is higher than that of lithium iron phosphate. The higher the voltage platform, the greater the specific capacity. Under the same volume or weight, or even the same ampere hour battery, the endurance mileage of ternary material lithium-ion battery with higher voltage platform is longer. Ternary lithium-ion batteries also have great advantages in high rate charging, and low temperature resistance. However, the cobalt element necessary for ternary lithium-ion batteries has less reserves in China, most of which are imported from abroad, which is greatly affected by market fluctuations, so the cost of ternary lithium-ion batteries will be relatively high.
Service life of lithium iron phosphate battery and ternary lithium ion battery
In terms of the service life of the battery, lithium iron phosphate has more advantages than ternary lithium-ion battery in terms of cycle utilization rate. Under the test conditions, 84% of the residual capacity of lithium iron phosphate battery after 5000 cycles and 66% of the residual capacity of ternary lithium-ion battery after 3900 cycles. Compared with the cycle life, lithium iron phosphate battery has more obvious advantages. In terms of cycle life, the real life of lithium iron phosphate battery is much longer than that of ternary lithium ion battery. Under the same cycle times, the residual capacity of lithium iron phosphate battery is also much more than that of ternary lithium ion battery.
At low temperature (below - 10 ℃), lithium phosphate ion battery decays very fast. After less than 100 charge and discharge cycles, the battery capacity will drop to 20% of the initial capacity, which is basically insulated from the use in cold areas; The ternary lithium-ion battery has excellent low-temperature performance and can maintain normal battery capacity at - 30 ℃, which is more suitable for the service conditions in low-temperature areas in the north.
Safety performance of lithium iron phosphate battery and ternary lithium ion battery
Under high temperature conditions, the ternary materials of ternary lithium-ion batteries will be analyzed at 200 ℃, initiate violent chemical reactions, release oxygen atoms, and are prone to combustion or explosion under high temperature applications. The analysis temperature of lithium phosphate ion battery is 800 ℃, which is not easy to catch fire, and the adaptability and safety about temperature are relatively high. Both batteries will be analyzed when they reach a certain temperature. The analysis temperature of lithium iron phosphate ion battery is higher than that of ternary lithium ion battery, but this does not determine that the safety of ternary lithium ion battery is poor. The safety design of power lithium battery system can be improved through dynamic connection structure, thermal management design, battery management system and other systems, Manufacturers can enhance overcharge protection, over discharge protection, over temperature protection and over-current protection, so as to make the design of safety measures more perfect and scientific, so as to make the battery work in a safe state. Compared with lithium iron phosphate battery, ternary lithium-ion battery is more suitable for household electric vehicles at present and in the future.
Choosing which type of battery is important for consumers to look at the issues of longer battery life, longer service life and safer. The advantages of lithium iron phosphate battery are higher safety, longer service life, low raw material cost, support for rapid charging, wide working temperature range, and stability. At present, it is the best vehicle lithium-ion battery. The disadvantage is that there is still a large gap in energy density compared with ternary lithium-ion battery. When the temperature is lower than - 10 ℃, the charging efficiency is reduced, And when the temperature is too low, it will affect the battery capacitance. The models used for lithium iron phosphate batteries are not suitable for driving in the north, especially in the extremely cold areas such as the Northeast; Ternary lithium-ion battery has the advantages of high energy density and good cycle performance. It is more suitable for the development trend of new energy vehicle battery in the future, suitable for Northern weather, and the battery is more stable at low temperature. The disadvantage is that the high-temperature structure of nickel cobalt aluminum is unstable, resulting in poor high-temperature safety, which leads to danger. However, this problem can be improved through various systems. At present, the cost is high. In contrast, ternary polymer lithium-ion battery has the incomparable high energy density and low temperature resistance of lithium iron phosphate battery, which is better than lithium iron phosphate battery. In the future of the development of new energy vehicles, ternary lithium-ion battery can deal with the problems of safety and cost, and can be used as a new energy storage device for vehicles in the future.
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